What Is a Land Claim Agreement

Many groups negotiated self-government as part of the comprehensive application process. Of the 26 agreements signed, 18 contained self-government provisions. However, self-government negotiations can continue even if a community has signed a historic treaty and does not meet the criteria for a comprehensive claim. As a result, self-government negotiations are underway in the Prairie provinces and Ontario, in addition to the large areas of Canada that are not covered by historic treaties. Finally, Smith made a comment on privatized research on progress in the Yukon. He explains that Yukon First Nations will conduct research, but they need to benefit their own communities, not their external communities. Smith points to the organizations needed to manage land, money and programs in Yukon. [6] He concluded: “The first five years of implementation will show whether this regulation will be able to do for our children what we intend to do.” [7] Approximately 7,000 ILAB beneficiaries reside in the Inuit communities of Nain, Hopedale, Postville, Makkovik, Rigolet, as well as Upper Lake Melville, other parts of Labrador, the island part of the province and across Canada. Since the coming into force date, provincial departments and agencies have been actively working with elected officials and Nunatsiavut Government officials to implement the treaty.

The Government of Newfoundland and Labrador continues to work closely with the Nunatsiavut Government in the implementation of the ICLA and consults with the Nunatsiavut Government on all major government initiatives in the Labrador-Inuit settlement region. The Akaitcho Dene of the Southern Slave Region initiated a contractual land claim procedure instead of a comprehensive claim; However, since the Métis were not included in the original treaty, they could not participate in the Akaitcho Dene process. In 1996, the South Slave Métis Tribal Council (now the Métis Nation of the Northwest Territories) signed a framework agreement to negotiate lands and resources. Several First Nations and Métis groups in the Northwest Territories negotiate settlements based on Indigenous and contractual rights, rather than using the full application process. The federal government negotiates with the Métis in the Northwest Territories differently than in the rest of Canada. Many communities in the Northwest Territories have mixed First Nations and Métis populations. Therefore, their interests are collectively negotiated. Negotiations with the Dene and Métis began in 1981. Prior to 1990, negotiations on a new treaty in this area were stimulated by cooperation between various Dene groups and Métis in the region. Dene and Métis negotiators reached an agreement in principle, but after 1990 this common front collapsed due to a disagreement over whether or not modern treaties were acceptable with language that seemed to erase rather than confirm the rights of Indigenous peoples. The Dene and Métis General Assembly split into several groups, each seeking its own agreement with the government.

The Gwich`in land claim was settled in 1992, followed by the Sahtu Dene and Métis Comprehensive Land Claim in 1994; and the Tlicho Land Claim and Self-Government Agreement with the four Tlicho Treaty 11 municipalities in the North Slave region was concluded in 2003. Other Aboriginal groups in British Columbia are continuing to negotiate their claims. Tsawwassen First Nation and Maa-nulth First Nation entered into agreements in 2009 and 2011 respectively. As of February 2015, approximately 60 comprehensive claims negotiations were underway in British Columbia, representing two-thirds of the province`s Indigenous peoples. Overall, overlapping applications cover more than 100% of British Columbia. Contract negotiations in British Columbia are arguably the most complex negotiations Canada has ever had and the most complex contract negotiations ever conducted in the world. To implement the new policy, an Aboriginal Claims Office was created in 1974 within what is now Indigenous and Northern Affairs Canada (ADNAC). Under the direction of a deputy minister, negotiators, lawyers and researchers handled two main types of claims: specific requests and comprehensive requests […].